Today is Ada Lovelace Day, a day of blogging about women in science! (Not necessarily blogging by women in science, which is every day here.) The day is named for Ada Lovelace, who was an important figure in the nascent days of computer science, back in the 1800s when it was more of a theoretical math field concerned with the creation of calculation engines. The idea of Ada Lovelace Day is to write about a woman in science, technology, engineering, or math, which raises awareness of all the great women, both now and in the past, who have done amazing things in the STEM fields. There will be lots of stories about various role models over at the official site once the day is concluded, but the scientist I wanted to tell you all about here is Mildred Dresselhaus.
For the last twenty years or so, materials made from carbon have been getting exponentially more and more attention. Carbon is an essential building block in many of the chemicals that are important for life, but there are also huge differences between materials made from carbon depending on how the carbon is bonded. Diamonds and coal are both forms of carbon, but with wildly different crystal structure. So many of the hot carbon materials from recent years have come from new ways that the carbon atoms can be arranged. For example, carbon nanotubes are like rolled up sheets of carbon, and graphene is a sheet of carbon that’s only one atom thick. Both carbon nanotubes and graphene have very high mechanical strength, electrical and thermal conductivity, and low permeability for their size. And there are a lot of other ways carbon can be nanostructured, collectively referred to as allotropes of carbon. You can see some of them in the image below, such as (a) diamond, (b) graphite (multiple sheets of graphene), and (h) a carbon nanotube.
But Dresselhaus was into carbon before it was cool, and has been a professor at MIT since the 60s studying the physics of carbon materials. Her work has focused on the thermal and electrical properties of nanomaterials, and the way in which energy dissipation is different in nanostructured carbon. Her early work focused on difficult experimental studies of the electronic band structure of carbon materials and the effects of nanoscale confinement. And she was able to theoretically predict the existence of carbon nanotubes, some of their electronic properties, and the properties of graphene, years before either of these materials were prepared and measured. Her scientific achievements are extremely impressive, and she has gotten a lot of honors accordingly.
And as you can imagine, things have changed a lot for women in science over the course of her career. When she began at MIT, less than 5% of students were female, and these days it’s more like 40%. But of course, it helps female students quite a bit to see female role models, like Dresselhaus. Which is the entire point of Ada Lovelace Day!